Odgers analyzed data from a longitudinal study of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994-1995 (the E-Risk Study) and collected new data on 150 young adolescents (ages 12-15) and their parents in southern California (the MiLife Study). The ERisk Study included community health and social status indicators, surveys of neighborhood residents, teacher surveys, and data from home visits when the children were ages 5, 7, 10 and 12. Data was also collected via observation of schools and neighborhoods.